Virtual Library

Physiology & Biophysics (Biosciences)

A component of The World-Wide Web Virtual Library

Maintained by The Department of Physiology and Biophysics
at Weill Medical College of Cornell University

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2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Awarded to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck

2004 Nobel Prize to:

4 October 2004

The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck for discoveries concerning "odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system."

Axel is University Professor at Columbia's College of Physicians and Surgeons and Buck is currently a Member at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center in Seattle.

Their work has increased our understanding of the sense of smell in mammals, including the diversity of odorant receptors and the mechanisms by which we experience one of our most complex senses in an orderly fashion. In many mammals, there are about one thousand odorant receptor molecules, each a member of the same family of membrane proteins but distinct in their odorant specificity. Axel and Buck identified this gene family--forming about three percent of the genome--and found that each olfactory receptor cell in the nasal epithelium expresses only one of the thousand genes.

Each receptor responds to a selective set of odors, and combinations of receptor activity account for our ability to sense many distinct odors. Additional work by Axel and Buck showed that these genes also control connections the sensory cells make on neural way stations--the glomeruli--which display similar specificity.

Axel, a graduate of Columbia College with the M.D. from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, is University professor at Columbia and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. A Member of the National Academy of Sciences, he is a prior winner of multiple awards, including Columbia's Hamilton Award.

Buck is a graduate of the University of Washington in Seattle with the Ph.D. from UT Southwestern in Dallas. She was a postdoc in Axel's Lab, moving on to the Department of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School and rising to Professor there; she joined the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center as Member in 2002. A member of the National Academy of Sciences and a winner of the Rosenstiel Award, she and Axel have jointly shared the Edward Perl Prize from UNC and the Unilever Science Award.

The Nobel announcement is at:

Physiology & Biophysics Servers

Aardvark: a sample Web poster
as seen at the Society for Neuroscience; also includes instructions for obtaining necessary Adobe Acrobat Reader software
Aachen Institut fur Physiologie
American Physiological Society
Bethesda, MD (US)
Annual Reviews
Including Annual Reviews of Physiology, of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure, and of Plant Physiology
Auburn University Dept. of Physiology & Pharmacology
Biophysical Society
2005 Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society
Birckbeck College Biophysics
Malet St., London
British Biophysical Society
Caltech biology
with links to the GENESIS simulator package.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Abstracts and authors addresses.
Cerebral Cortex
Journal table of contents.
Charles University 1st Medical School Dept. of Physiology
Charles University 2nd Medical School Dept. of Physiology
Prague, Czech Republic
Cold Spring Harbor Labs
Cornell Univ. Field of Biophysics
Ithaca, NY (see below for Cornell Med Biophysics)
Cornell Univ. Division of Biology - Program in Physiology
Ithaca, NY (Including Vet School)
Cornell University's Weill Medical College Department of Physiology and Biophysics
New York City (see above for Cornell Ithaca Biophysics)
East Carolina Univ. Dept. of Physiology
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Florida State Univ. Institute of Molecular Biophysics
Molecular Biophysics and Structural Biology. Tallahassee, FL
G-protein-coupled receptor database
from MGH - Harvard
Gordon Conferences
Biology, Chemistry and Physics
Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University Dept. of Physiology
Johns Hopkins University Department of Physiology
Journals of the American Physiological Society
American Journal of Physiology, Journal of Neurophysiology, Physiological Reviews, etc.
Journal Abstracts from the American Physiological Society
APStracts service
Journal of Neurophysiology
Journal of Neuroscience
The Marine Biological Laboratory
Woods Hole, MA
Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung Abteilung Zellphysiologie
B. Sakmann lab (Heidelberg)
Medical College of Ohio Department of Physiology
...and Molecular Medicine
CAL project at the Department of Physiology, Birmingham University (UK)
Mount Sinai School of Medicine Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics
New York, NY
NIH NHLBI Laboratory of Cardiac Energetics
U.S. National Institutes of Health
NIH Image
FTP site for Wayne Rasband's Macintosh pixel-based image and palette processing and analysis software
National Institute of Physiological Sciences, Okazaki, Japan
Neural Computation
Abstracts and authors addresses.
NEURON simulation program
Duke Univ.
NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital - New York Weill Cornell Campus Department of Neurology and Neuroscience
New York City
NIH Image
FTP site for Wayne Rasband's Macintosh pixel-based image and palette processing and analysis software
The 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Ohio State Univ. Biophysics
Pennsylvania State University Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Research Resource for Complex Physiological Signals
The Physiological Society
Cambridge, UK. Includes index to The Journal of Physiology (London)
Respiratory Images
from Murdoch University, Perth (AUS)
Rockefeller University
RU home page and guide <--
Rockefeller University Calendar of Events
Rockefeller University Lectures
Special lectures, theses and cookie seminars. -->
Society of General Physiologists
Society for Mathematical Biology
Society for Neuroscience
Washington, DC
Texas A&M University Dept. of Medical Physiology
Temple University Department of Physiology
Philadelphia, PA
USAF Dept of Physiology
Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, TX
University of Adelaide Dept. of Physiology
University of Alabama Birmingham Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics
University of Arizona Dept. of Physiology
Tucson, AZ - with educational links for undergraduate physiology
University of Bristol Dept. of Physiology
UCLA Dept. of Physiology
University of California Los Angeles
University of Chicago Cellular and Molecular Physiology
University of Cincinnati Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Physiology
University College London Dept. of Physiology
UCL and Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London, UK
University of Colorado Dept. of Physiology
University of Copenhagen
University of Illinois Biophysics
Urbana-Champaign, Il
University of Hamburg Institute of Physiology
UKE University Hospital Eppendorf
University of Illinois Dept. of Physiology
Urbana-Champaign, Il
University of Iowa Physiologic Imaging
Iowa City, IA
University of Kansas Dept. of Physiology
University of Koln, Germany,
University College London Department of Physiology
with Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine
University of Manitoba Department of Physiology
University of Miami Department of Physiology and Biophysics
Miami, FL
UMDNJ Program in Physiology and Neurobiology
University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey
UMDS Physiology, London, UK
Univ. of Minnesota Department of Physiology
Minneapolis, MN
Univ. of Missouri Department of Physiology
University of Oxford: Univ. Laboratory of Physiology
and McDonnell-Pew Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience
University of Pennsylvania Biophysics
University of South Florida Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics
Tampa, FL
University of Sydney Physiology Dept.
University of Texas San Antonio Dept. of Physiology
Univ. of Tennessee - Memphis Thermophysiology Resource
Univ. of Vermont Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Burlington, VT
University of Virginia Physiology
University of Washington Department of Physiology and Biophysics
Seattle, WA
University of Western Ontario Department of Medical Biophysics
Washington University Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry
St. Louis, MO
Wayne State University Physiology
Detroit, MI
The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Biosciences
Near-complete list of biomedical WWW sites
The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Medicine and Health
The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Neuroscience
Neurophysiology information server list
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Biomedical and Physical Sciences Allied to Physiology and Biophysics

These links reflect the wide range of interests, techniques, and publications relevant to contemporary physiology and biophysics

Alzheimer disease home page
American Academy of Neurology
American Association for the Advancement of Science (also see Science)
American Chemical Society
American College of Cardiology
American Institute of Physics
American Mathematical Society
American Physical Society
Apple Computer Software and Server Sites
Association for Computing Machinery
See also Communications of the ACM
Biology Journal Contents
Biological molecules
Biological Journals, Current Awareness Service, and Conferences
Bionet News Archives
Biosciences Virtual Library
Pharmaceutical development, genetic engineering, medical device development, and related fields.
Boston University Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems
British Association
British Association for the Advancement of Science
Calcium imaging
in vivo imaging during vision, from Tubingen
Caltech Molecular Neuroscience
Case Western Reserve University Department of Neuroscience
Chemistry links from UCLA
The Chronicle of Higher Education
Academe This Week
Cognitive Neuroscience Society
Cognitive and psychological sciences links
Cognitive science links
Communications of the ACM
see also the Association for Computing Machinery homepage
Community of Science
Digital Equipment Corporation User Society
The Digital Anatomist Program
at the University of Washington
Elsevier journals
Heart virtual explorer
from the Franklin Institute
Virtual posters: neurobiology of the hippocampus
Human genome hotlinks
IBM Visualization Lab
Scientific visualization at IBM Almaden (CA)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
International Lung Sounds Association
Interactive Medical Student Lounge
Japan Information Center of Science and Technology
Japanese Neural Network Society
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Text amd illustrations online from 4/95
Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Neurology
AlsoMGH Medical/Biological Resources
Medical Education Page
Medical Imaging/Scientific Visualization WWW Servers
Medical Research Council (U.K.)
MIT Press
and Bradford Books
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
NASA Ames Biocomputation Center
National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council
The National Library of Medicine
Natural History Museum
South Kensington (London)
Salk Insitute and University of California San Diego
NeuroWeb Posters
A virtual poster session
NIH Home Page
US National Institutes of Health
The NIH Guide
(through 1997) Maintained by NYU Medical Center
NSF Home page
US National Science Foundation
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man
Periodic table from U.C. Berkeley
Periodic table
Striking graphic periodic table
Periodic table
Physical Review archives
(Prototype: under construction...)
Physics e-print archive
Protein Society
and the Protein Society's journal Protein Science
Radiology, PET and Medical Imaging WWW Servers
Rat Brain Atlas
from the UCLA Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
(also see AAAS)
Science Times
Journal references for many NY Times science stories
The Scientist
Published by the Institute for Scientific Information
Silicon Graphics
Society for Critical Care Medicine
Society for Experimental Biology
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
Society for Mathematical Biology
Stanford University Cognitive and Psychological Sciences
Stereotaxic MRI Brain Map of Japanese Monkey
Sun Microsystems
Telemedicine Resources and Services
Three dimensional medical reconstructions
including images of brain and cerebral circulation
University of California, Davis Cognitive Neuroscience
University of California San Francisco's W.M. Keck Foundation Center for Integrative Neuroscience
University of California San Francisco's Sloan Center for Theoretical Neurobiology
University of Florida Center for Structural Biology
University of Pennsylvania Neurology
University of Washington Neurosciences Web servers
by W.H. Calvin; see also his eclectic Bookmark File
The Urbana Atlas of Pathology
U.S. Patent Database at Town Hall
The Virtual Brain
The Virtual Hospital
Iowa radiology
The Virtual Neuron
The Visible Human Project
Complete set of axial sections of cadavers (Under construction)
WebPath: Internet Pathology Laboratory - Neuropathology
Whitehead Institute for Genome Research
The Whole Brain Atlas
Yale University Neuroengineering and Neuroscience Center
formerly CTAN
Yale Psychology Department
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WWW VL Physiology & Biophysics Webmaster:
Daniel Gardner
4 October 2004